Arizona Amphibian Update–October 2013

By Garry Rogers

Arizona Amphibian Conservation Status

Amphibians are faced with insurmountable threats worldwide.  Habitat loss, invasions, toxic pollution, and disease have placed them near the top of global conservation concerns.  Arizona amphibians and other desert amphibians, are most threatened by habitat loss.  The growing human population is using water so fast that springs and streams are drying up.  Arizona State Game and Fish Department, reports that 58% of natives are vulnerable (State Status S1-S3), and 74% of natives are of possible long-term concern (State Status S1-S4).  Several species are protected or are being considered for protection according to the rules of the U. S. Endangered Species Act.

Amphibian Numbers

    • World:  6400
    • U.S.:  230
  • Arizona Total:  35
  • Arizona Natives:  31
  • Arizona Vulnerable (Ranked S1-S3):  18 (58%)
  • Arizona Possible Long-Term Concern (Ranked S1-S4):  23 (74%)

Conservation Status Symbol Definitions

(More Symbols Applied by Arizona Game and Fish Department (AZGFD))

  • S1      Critically Imperiled: Extremely rare or some factor(s) is making the species especially vulnerable to extirpation.  Typically 5 or fewer locations or very few remaining individuals (<1,000).
  • S2      Imperiled:  Rare or some factor(s) is making the species very vulnerable to extirpation. Typically 6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals (1,000 to 3,000).
  • S3      Vulnerable:  Rare or found only in a restricted range (even if abundant at some locations), or because of other factors making it vulnerable to extirpation.  Typically 21 to 100 occurrences or between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals.
  • S4      Apparently Secure:  Uncommon but not rare, and usually widespread.  Usually more than 100 occurrences* and more than 10,000 individuals.  Possible long-term concern.
  • S5      Secure:  Common, widespread, and abundant.  Safe under present conditions.  Typically with considerably more than 100 locations and more than 10,000 individuals.
  • SX      Presumed Extinct:  Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.
  • S#S# (e.g., S3S4):  Indicates the range of uncertainty about exact status.
  • SE=Exotic Origin:  Species is not native to AZ.

Symbols Used for the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)

  • LE       Listed Endangered:  Imminent jeopardy of extinction.
  • LT        Listed Threatened:  Imminent jeopardy of becoming Endangered.
  • PS       Partial Status:  Listed Endangered or Threatened, but not in entire range.
  • SAT     Listed Threatened due to Similarity of Appearance.  This happens when a member of a non-listed population is found within the geographic area of a Distinct Population Segment for a listed species (e.g., a wintering bald eagle within the DPS for listed bald eagles).
  • C          Candidate:  Species for which the USFWS has on file sufficient information on biological vulnerability and threats to support proposals to list as Endangered or Threatened under ESA. Proposed rules for these species is precluded at present by other higher priority listing actions.
  • SC       Species of Concern:  The terms “Species of Concern” or “Species at Risk” should be considered as terms-of-art that describe the entire realm of taxa whose conservation status may be of concern to the US Fish and Wildlife Service, but neither term has official status (currently includes all former C2 and delisted species).

Arizona Amphibian Species List

COMMON NAME

AZ

ESA

African Clawed Frog

SE1

American Bullfrog

SE5

Arizona Tiger Salamander

S5

Arizona Toad

S3S4

SC

Arizona Treefrog

S4

C,DPS

Arizona Treefrog (Huachuca/Canelo DPS)

S1

C,DPS

Baja California Treefrog

S3,SE

Barking Frog

S2

Boreal Chorus Frog

S5

Canyon Treefrog

S5

Chiricahua Leopard Frog

S2

LT

Couch’s Spadefoot

S5

Great Basin Spadefoot

S3

Great Plains Toad

S5

Green Toad

S3

Lowland Burrowing Treefrog

S2

Lowland Leopard Frog

S3

SC

Mexican Spadefoot

S5

Mogollon Rim Treefrog

S4

Northern Leopard Frog

S2

Plains Leopard Frog

S1

Plains Spadefoot

S4

Red-spotted Toad

S5

Relict Leopard Frog

S1

C

Rio Grande Leopard Frog

SE3SE4

Rocky Mountain Toad

S4

Sonoran Desert Toad

S3S4

Sonoran Green Toad

S3

Sonoran Tiger Salamander

S1

LE

Southwestern Woodhouse’s Toad

S4

Tarahumara Frog

SXS1

SC

Western Barking Frog

S2

Western Green Toad

S3

Western Narrow-mouthed Toad

S3

Woodhouse’s Toad

S5

8 thoughts on “Arizona Amphibian Update–October 2013

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