Arizona Mammals Update–November 2013

By Garry Rogers

Arizona Mammals

Rock Squirrel on a Fence Post

I always feel closer to mammals than other species groups.  The Rock Squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) in the photograph is a member of the local colony that lives in the retreating face of eroding lake sediments back of my house.  Though they live in burrows and harvest seeds and fallen fruit, these squirrels are great climbers.  I often see them in the tops of the pear trees picking fresh fruit and the tops of willow trees eating tender buds.  They routinely gather fallen seeds beneath the bird feeders, and it is there that some become nervously tolerant of my presence.

The least skittish of my other neighbors include the raccoons who love to slip in the cat door and eat cat food, the skunks who stroll by brushing my leg in the dark, and the coyotes and deer who often stand and return my stare.


Wildlife specialists conclude that more than half (51%) of the 203 native Arizona mammals are vulnerable or recently extinct.  Adding in the species the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AZGFD) considers possible future risks, the number extinct or in danger rises to 127 or 67%.

Arizona Mammals Numbers (From AZGFD)

  • World:  ≈1200
  • United States:  ≈ 400
  • Arizona Mammals:  214
  • Arizona Natives:  203
  • Arizona Natives at risk of extinction (S1-S4):  123
  • ESA Arizona Mammals Listed Endangered:  8
  • ESA Arizona Mammals Listed Threatened:  2
  • ESA Arizona Mammals Partially Endangered or Threatened:  3
  • ESA Arizona Mammals of Concern:  31

References for Arizona Mammals

Arizona Mammals Conservation Status Symbols

Symbols used by Arizona Game and Fish Department (AZGFD)

  • S1         Critically Imperiled: Extremely rare or some factor(s) is making the species especially vulnerable to extirpation.  Typically 5 or fewer locations or very few remaining individuals (<1,000).
  • S2         Imperiled:  Rare or some factor(s) is making the species very vulnerable to extirpation. Typically 6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals (1,000 to 3,000).
  • S3         Vulnerable:  Rare or found only in a restricted range (even if abundant at some locations), or because of other factors making it vulnerable to extirpation.  Typically 21 to 100 occurrences or between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals.
  • S4         Apparently Secure:  Uncommon but not rare, and usually widespread.  Usually more than 100 occurrences* and more than 10,000 individuals.  Possible long-term concern (my emphasis).
  • S5         Secure:  Common, widespread, and abundant.  Safe under present conditions.  Typically with considerably more than 100 locations and more than 10,000 individuals.
  • SH         Possibly Extirpated (Historical): Historically present, and there is some expectation that the species may be rediscovered.
  • SX         Presumed Extinct:  Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.
  • S#S#:  Indicates the range of uncertainty about exact status (e.g., S3S4).
  • SE:          Exotic Origin:  Species is not native to AZ.

Symbols Used for the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
US Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service

  • LE         Listed Endangered:  Imminent jeopardy of extinction.
  • LT         Listed Threatened:  Imminent jeopardy of becoming Endangered.
  • PS         Partial Status:  Listed Endangered or Threatened, but not in entire range.
  • PD        Proposed for delisting.
  • No (No Status) Certain populations of this taxon do not have designated status (check with state or regional USFWS office for details about which populations have designated status).
  • PE         Proposed Endangered
  • SC         Species of Concern:  Describes the entire realm of taxa whose conservation status may be of concern to the US Fish and Wildlife Service, but does not have official federal status.

A R I Z O N A   M A M M A L S

SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

AZ

ESA

Ammospermophilus harrisii

Harris’ Antelope Squirrel

S5

Ammospermophilus leucurus

White-tailed Antelope Squirrel

S5

Ammospermophilus leucurus tersus

Prospect Valley White-tailed Antelope Squirrel

SHQ

Ammotragus lervia

Barbary Sheep or Aoudad

SER

Antilocapra americana

Pronghorn

S5

Antilocapra americana americana

America Pronghorn

S5

Antilocapra americana mexicana

Chihuahuan Pronghorn

SXS2Q

Antilocapra americana sonoriensis

Sonoran Pronghorn

S1

LE

Antrozous pallidus

Pallid Bat

S4

Baiomys taylori

Northern Pygmy Mouse

S3

Bassariscus astutus

Ringtail

S5

Bos bison

American Bison

SRFSC

No

Brachylagus idahoensis

Pygmy Rabbit

SP

No

Canis latrans

Coyote

S5

Canis lupus

Gray Wolf

SXS1

PD

Canis lupus baileyi

Mexican Gray Wolf

SXS1

PE,XN

Castor canadensis

American Beaver

S4

Cervus elaphus merriami

Merriam’s Elk

SX

Chaetodipus baileyi

Bailey’s Pocket Mouse

S5

Chaetodipus formosus

Long-tailed Pocket Mouse

S5

Chaetodipus hispidus

Hispid Pocket Mouse

S5

Chaetodipus intermedius

Rock Pocket Mouse

S5

Chaetodipus intermedius intermedius

Rock Pocket Mouse

S5

Chaetodipus penicillatus

Sonoran Desert Pocket Mouse

S5

Chaetodipus spinatus

Spiny Pocket Mouse

SR

Choeronycteris mexicana

Mexican Long-tongued Bat

S3

SC

Conepatus leuconotus

White-backed Hog-nosed Skunk

S3

Conepatus leuconotus leuconotus

Hog-nosed Skunk

S3

Corynorhinus townsendii

Townsend’s Big-eared Bat

S3S4

No

Corynorhinus townsendii pallescens

Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat

S3S4

SC

Cynomys gunnisoni

Gunnison’s Prairie Dog

S4

PS

Cynomys ludovicianus

Black-tailed Prairie Dog

SXS1

SC

Didelphis virginiana

Virginia Opossum

S3

Didelphis virginiana californica

Mexican Opossum

S3

Didelphis virginiana virginiana

Virginia Opossum

SE

Dipodomys deserti

Desert Kangaroo Rat

S5

Dipodomys merriami

Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat

S5

No

Dipodomys microps

Chisel-toothed Kangaroo Rat

S3

Dipodomys microps celsus

A Chisel-toothed Kangaroo Rat

S2

Dipodomys microps leucotis

Houserock Valley Chisel-toothed Kangaroo Rat

S2

SC

Dipodomys ordii

Ord’s Kangaroo Rat

S5

Dipodomys spectabilis

Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat

S5

Dipodomys spectabilis baileyi

New Mexico Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat

S3

Enchisthenes hartii

Velvety Fruit-eating Bat

SA

Eptesicus fuscus

Big Brown Bat

S4S5

Equus asinus

Feral Ass

SE5

Equus caballus

Feral Horse

SE4

Erethizon dorsatum

North American Porcupine

S4S5

Euderma maculatum

Spotted Bat

S2S3

SC

Eumops perotis

Western Bonneted Bat

S3

Eumops perotis californicus

Greater Western Bonneted Bat

S3

SC

Eumops underwoodi

Underwood’s Bonneted Bat

S1

SC

Glaucomys sabrinus

Northern Flying Squirrel

SP

No

Gulo gulo

Wolverine

SRF

Herpailurus yaguarondi

Jaguarundi

SRF

Herpailurus yaguarondi tolteca

Jaguarundi

SRF

LE

Idionycteris phyllotis

Allen’s Lappet-browed Bat

S2S3

SC

Lasionycteris noctivagans

Silver-haired Bat

S3S4

Lasiurus blossevillii

Western Red Bat

S3

Lasiurus cinereus

Hoary Bat

S4

No

Lasiurus xanthinus

Western Yellow Bat

S2S3

Leopardus pardalis

Ocelot

S1

LE

Leptonycteris curasoae

Southern Long-nosed Bat

S2

PS

Leptonycteris curasoae yerbabuenae

Lesser Long-nosed Bat

S2S3

LE

Leptonycteris nivalis

Mexican Long-nosed Bat

SP

Lepus alleni

Antelope Jackrabbit

S3

Lepus californicus

Black-tailed Jackrabbit

S5

Lepus callotis

White-sided Jackrabbit

SP

Lepus townsendii

White-tailed Jackrabbit

SP

Lontra canadensis

Northern River Otter

S1

Lontra canadensis lataxina

Southeastern River Otter

SE1

Lontra canadensis sonora

Southwestern River Otter

SH

SC

Lynx canadensis

Canada Lynx

SRX

LT

Lynx rufus

Bobcat

S5

No

Macrotus californicus

California Leaf-nosed Bat

S3

SC

Mephitis macroura

Hooded Skunk

S4

Mephitis mephitis

Striped Skunk

S5

Microtus longicaudus

Long-tailed Vole

S4

Microtus longicaudus leucophaeus

White-bellied Long-tailed Vole

S2

Microtus mexicanus hualpaiensis

Hualapai Mexican Vole

S1

LE

Microtus mexicanus navaho

Navajo Mexican Vole

S1

SC

Microtus mogollonensis

Mogollon Vole

S5

Microtus montanus

Montane Vole

S4

Microtus montanus arizonensis

Arizona Montane Vole

S4

Microtus pennsylvanicus

Meadow Vole

SP

No

Mormoops megalophylla

Ghost-faced Bat

SA

Mus musculus

House Mouse

SE5

Mustela erminea

Ermine or Short-tailed Weasel

S1

Mustela frenata

Long-tailed Weasel

S4

Mustela nigripes

Black-footed Ferret

SXS1

LE,XN

Mustela putorius

European Ferret

SER

Myocastor coypus

Nutria or Coypu

SER

Myodes gapperi

Southern Red-backed Vole

S3

Myotis auriculus

Southwestern Myotis

S3

Myotis californicus

California Myotis

S4

Myotis ciliolabrum

Western Small-footed Myotis

S3S4

SC

Myotis evotis

Long-eared Myotis

S3

SC

Myotis occultus

Arizona Myotis

S3

SC

Myotis thysanodes

Fringed Myotis

S3S4

SC

Myotis velifer

Cave Myotis

S3S4

SC

Myotis volans

Long-legged Myotis

S3S4

SC

Myotis yumanensis

Yuma Myotis

S3S4

SC

Nasua narica

White-nosed Coati

S4

Neotamias cinereicollis

Gray-collared Chipmunk

S4

Neotamias dorsalis

Cliff Chipmunk

S5

Neotamias minimus

Least Chipmunk

S4

Neotamias quadrivittatus

Colorado Chipmunk

S4

Neotamias rufus

Hopi Chipmunk

S1

Neotamias umbrinus

Uinta Chipmunk

S4

Neotoma albigula

Western White-throated Woodrat

S5

Neotoma cinerea

Bushy-tailed Woodrat

S5

Neotoma lepida

Desert Woodrat

S5

Neotoma mexicana

Mexican Woodrat

S5

Neotoma mexicana mexicana

Mexican Woodrat

S5

Neotoma micropus

Southern Plains Woodrat

SP

Neotoma stephensi

Stephen’s Woodrat

S5

Notiosorex cockrumi

Cockrum’s Desert Shrew

S1

Notiosorex crawfordi

Crawford’s Desert Shrew

S4S5

Nyctinomops femorosaccus

Pocketed Free-tailed Bat

S3

Nyctinomops macrotis

Big Free-tailed Bat

S3

SC

Ochotona princeps

American Pika

SRF

Odocoileus hemionus

Mule or Black-tailed Deer

S5

No

Odocoileus virginianus

White-tailed Deer

S5

Ondatra zibethicus

Common Muskrat

S4

Onychomys arenicola

Mearns’ Grasshopper Mouse

SP

Onychomys leucogaster

Northern Grasshopper Mouse

S5

Onychomys torridus

Southern Grasshopper Mouse

S5

Ovis canadensis

Mountain or Bighorn Sheep

S3S4

No

Ovis canadensis canadensis

Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep

S3

Ovis canadensis nelsoni

Desert Bighorn Sheep

S3

Panthera onca

Jaguar

S1

LE

Parastrellus hesperus

Canyon Bat

S5

Pecari tajacu

Collared Peccary

S5

Perognathus amplus

Arizona Pocket Mouse

S5

Perognathus amplus amplus

Yavapai Arizona Pocket Mouse

S5

SC

Perognathus amplus cineris

Wupatki Arizona Pocket Mouse

S2S3

SC

Perognathus flavescens

Plains Pocket Mouse

S4

Perognathus flavescens caryi

Apache Pocket Mouse

S1

Perognathus flavescens melanotis

Apache Pocket Mouse

SH

Perognathus flavus

Silky Pocket Mouse

S5

Perognathus flavus goodpasteri

Springerville Pocket Mouse

S2

SC

Perognathus longimembris

Little Pocket Mouse

S5

No

Perognathus parvus

Great Basin Pocket Mouse

S4

Peromyscus boylii

Brush Mouse

S5

Peromyscus crinitus

Canyon Mouse

S4

Peromyscus eremicus

Cactus Mouse

S5

Peromyscus eremicus eremicus

See: Peromyscus eremicus

S5

Peromyscus gratus

Osgood’s Mouse

SP

Peromyscus leucopus

White-footed Mouse

S5

Peromyscus maniculatus

Deer Mouse

S5

Peromyscus melanotis

Black-eared Mouse

SRF

Peromyscus merriami

Merriam’s Deermouse

S2

Peromyscus nasutus

Northern Rock Mouse

S3

Peromyscus pectoralis

White-ankled Mouse

SRF

Peromyscus truei

Pinon Mouse

S5

Procyon lotor

Northern Raccoon

S4

Puma concolor

Mountain Lion or Puma

S4

Rattus norvegicus

Norway or Brown Rat

SE1

Rattus rattus

Black or House Rat

SE1

Reithrodontomys fulvescens

Fulvous Harvest Mouse

S4

Reithrodontomys megalotis

Western Harvest Mouse

S5

Reithrodontomys montanus

Plains Harvest Mouse

S3

Sciurus aberti

Abert’s Squirrel

S5

Sciurus aberti chuscensis

Abert’s Chuska Squirrel

S3

Sciurus aberti kaibabensis

Kaibab Squirrel

S2S3

Sciurus arizonensis

Arizona Gray Squirrel

S4

Sciurus nayaritensis

Mexican Fox Squirrel

S2

Sciurus nayaritensis chiricahuae

Chiricahua Fox Squirrel

S2

SC

Sigmodon arizonae

Arizona Cotton Rat

S4

Sigmodon arizonae arizonae

Camp Verde Cotton Rat

SH

Sigmodon arizonae jacksoni

Yavapai Cotton Rat

SH

SC

Sigmodon arizonae plenus

Colorado River Cotton Rat

S2S3

Sigmodon fulviventer

Tawny-bellied Cotton Rat

S4

Sigmodon hispidus

Hispid Cotton Rat

S5

Sigmodon hispidus eremicus

Yuma Hispid Cotton Rat

S2

SC

Sigmodon ochrognathus

Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat

S4

SC

Sorex arizonae

Arizona Shrew

S2

SC

Sorex merriami

Merriam’s Shrew

S3

Sorex monticolus

Dusky Shrew

S4

Sorex nanus

Dwarf Shrew

S1

Sorex palustris

American Water Shrew

S1

Spermophilus lateralis

Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel

S5

Spermophilus spilosoma

Spotted Ground Squirrel

S4

Spermophilus tereticaudus

Round-tailed Ground Squirrel

S5

No

Spermophilus tridecemlineatus

Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel

S3

Spermophilus tridecemlineatus monticola

White Mountains Ground Squirrel

S1S2

Spermophilus variegatus

Rock Squirrel

S5

Spilogale gracilis

Western Spotted Skunk

S5

Sus scrofa

Feral Pig or Wild Boar

SE2

Sylvilagus audubonii

Desert Cottontail

S5

Sylvilagus floridanus

Eastern Cottontail

S5

Sylvilagus nuttallii

Mountain Cottontail

S3

Sylvilagus nuttallii grangeri

North Kaibab Mountain Cottontail

S1?

Sylvilagus nuttallii pinetis

A Southwestern Cottontail

S3

Tadarida brasiliensis

Brazilian Free-tailed Bat

S3S4

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus

Red Squirrel

S5

PS

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis

Mt Graham Red Squirrel

S1

LE

Taxidea taxus

American Badger

S3S4

Thomomys bottae

Botta’s Pocket Gopher

S5

Thomomys bottae desertorum

Pocket Gohper

S5

Thomomys bottae mearnsi

Mearns’ Southern Pocket Gopher

S5

SC

Thomomys bottae subsimilis

Harquahala Southern Pocket Gopher

SH

SC

Thomomys talpoides

Northern Pocket Gopher

S4

Thomomys umbrinus

Southern Pocket Gopher

S4

Thomomys umbrinus intermedius

Southern Pocket Gopher

S3

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

Common Gray Fox

S5

Ursus americanus

American Black Bear

S5

No

Ursus arctos

Grizzly or Brown Bear

SX

Ursus arctos horribilis

Grizzly Bear

SX

LT

Vulpes macrotis

Kit Fox

S3S4

No

Vulpes vulpes

Red Fox

S3

Zapus hudsonius

Meadow Jumping Mouse

S2

No

Zapus hudsonius luteus

New Mexico meadow jumping mouse

S1

PE

Zapus princeps

Western Jumping Mouse

SRF

 

3 thoughts on “Arizona Mammals Update–November 2013

  1. Pingback: Arizona Wildlife in Danger | The Blog Farm

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